Virtual Library

This library contains information on key publications of the Inter-Agency Working Group of FAO, IFAD, UNCTAD and the World Bank on responsible agricultural investment.

UNCTAD & World Bank. 2017. The Impact of Larger-Scale Agricultural Investments on Local Communities: Updated Voices from the Field.
This study analyses the impacts of larger-scale agricultural investments on local communities based on research conducted in eight investment operations in four countries(Cambodia, Ethiopia, Mozambique and Tanzania).

FAO. 2016. Home country measures that promote responsible foreign agricultural investment: Evidence from selected OECD countries.
This paper summarizes the good practices by nine selected OECD countries that seek to promote responsible foreign investment in developing country agriculture, primarily by investors in their territory or jurisdiction. The study provides examples of the increasing trend of home countries in establishing binding legal norms and other mechanisms as safeguards that are relevant for agricultural investment.

FAO. 2016. Trends in Foreign Direct Investment in Food, Beverages and Tobacco.
This paper analyses foreign direct investment (FDI) flows in food, beverages and tobacco, including primary agriculture and retail, from 2003 to 2014. It provides information on global, regional and – where possible – national trends in FDI flows in food, beverages and tobacco.

UNCTAD, World Bank & IISD. 2015. Investment contracts for agriculture: maximizing gains and minimizing risks.
This paper shows how investment contracts can be set up to promote sustainable development. It builds on research on impacts of larger-scale land-based investment carried out by UNCTAD and the World Bank, as well as on research on investment contracts from the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD).

Zhan, Mirza & Speller. 2015. The Impact of Larger Scale Agricultural Investments on Communities in South East Asia: A First Assessment.
This article provides detailed findings on the impact of investments in areas such as employment, incomes, land rights and the environment, relying on interviews with representative of the companies concerned and with members of local communities, as well as other stakeholders, carried out using a dyadic approach, the chapter.

UNCTAD & World Bank. 2014. The Practice of Responsible Investment Principles in Larger-Scale Agricultural Investments – Implications for corporate performance and impact on local communities.
This report presents findings from a field-based survey on the conduct of agricultural operations at 39 large-scale, mature agribusiness investments in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia. The objective of the report is to provide first-hand, practical knowledge of the approach, behaviour, and experience of these investments, their relationships with surrounding communities and the consequent positive and/or negative outcomes for these communities, host countries, other stakeholders, and the investors themselves.

FAO. 2014. Challenges and opportunities of foreign investment in developing country agriculture for sustainable development.
This paper describes challenges, opportunities and determinants of foreign investment in developing country agriculture for sustainable development. Options and good practices for generation of mutual benefits and prevention and mitigation of risks are presented.

FAO. 2014. Impacts of foreign agricultural investment in developing countries: evidence from case studies.
This paper summarizes the results of FAO’s case studies on the impacts of foreign agricultural investment on host communities and countries. The studies suggest that the disadvantages of large-scale land acquisitions often outweigh the few benefits to the local community. 

World Bank. 2013. Investing in agribusiness: a retrospective view of a Development Bank’s investments in agribusiness in Africa and Southeast Asia and the Pacific.
This study analyses the experience of the Commonwealth Development Corporation (CDC) as an investor in commercial smallholder and estate agriculture and agro-processing in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia and the Pacific between 1948 and 2000. This review of CDC agribusiness investments corroborates the view that agribusiness investments are risky, particularly when the investment is in a start-up.

FAO. 2013. Trends and impacts of foreign investment in developing country agriculture – Evidence from case studies.
This publication examines the trends in agricultural FDI and its economic, social and environmental benefits and risks and at the national and local levels, as well as the determinants of these impacts. Download as e-book or PDF.

IFAD & Technoserve. 2011. Outgrower Schemes—Enhancing Profitability.
This technical brief summarizes the seven common characteristics found in outgrower schemes as well as issues to consider when evaluating outgrower programmes.